Before using this referencing guide you should always consult your unit guide, which may specify variations on this style. If you are still unsure, please check with your unit chair, lecturer or tutor.
The following principles of the Harvard referencing style apply to all sources, including print, electronic and multimedia sources.
The Harvard style consists of two elements:
* in-text citations in the body of the paper that include the author, the date and often a page number
* a reference list at the end of the paper giving full bibliographic details of all in-text citations.
Note that you may not always find an example of the specific source you want to reference. Sometimes you may have to combine elements from more than one section in this guide to determine the correct referencing
1.1 Referencing system
This referencing is based on the ‘Harvard’ system. This system is based on two requirements; the first is to reference in the main body of the text after referring to another person’s work and the second is to compile a list of all references at the end of the text (reference list). The Harvard system is a simple method of quoting references in which names and dates are given in the body of the text and alphabetically listed at the end of the essay / assignment / project. Footnotes may not be used as they are not in keeping with the Harvard Referencing System. When using the Harvard Referencing System do not use footnotes, numbered reference lists, or include references for Wikipedia as this is not an academic source.
1.2 Purpose of referencing
References are a list of all the materials which have been used or cited in the essay / assignment / project with enough detail to allow a reader to find the item with as much ease as possible. It is important that whenever you use the ideas of other writers, or quote directly from their works, that you acknowledge them in the text and in a list of references at the end. They are called references because you have ‘referred’ to that article or book in your text. As others who read your essay / assignment / project may wish to follow up a particular author’s ideas, it is vitally important that all references are complete and accurate.
This app includes:
How do I format in-text citations?
How do I compile a reference list?
Multiple authors of a single work
Citing multiple source at the same point
Repeat citations in the same paragraph
Multiple publications by the same author in the same year
Reference list entries
One, two or three authors
More than three authors
Chapter in an edited book
Dictionary or encyclopedia
Work other than a first edition
Print journal article – one to three authors
e-journal article – one to three authors
Journal article – four or more authors
Newspaper article – no author
Newspaper article – online or database
Review in a periodical
Image from a print publication
Image from a database
Image from a website
Reproducing figures in assignments
Artwork in museum/gallery
Note that referencing styles
for online sources vary at
different institutions, faculties and schools,
as standards are still evolving.
Always consult your unit guide first.
Online, broadcast, video
Webpage or document from a website
Podcast or streaming video
Film, DVD, video, CD-ROM
Television and radio
Advertisement in a print publication
Brochures, posters, pamphlets
Software and games
Table or chart