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The All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. The AIADMK also has a presence in other Indian states including Delhi, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
It is a Dravidian party founded by M.G. Ramachandran (popularly known as MGR) in 1972 as a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The AIADMK has been headed by Ms. Jayalalithaa since 1989. The AIADMK’s General Secretary, Ms Jayalalithaa, assumed office as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for the third time after a landslide victory in 2011.
The party headquarters is in Royapettah, Chennai, and was gifted to the party in 1986 by its former leader Janaki Ramachandran, wife of MGR. The party headed its coalition to win the Tamil Nadu assembly election 6 times to head the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.
MGR Era (1972–1987)
Later, the party leaders prefixed All India (AI) tag before the party name. MGR used his fan network for building the party cadre. The AIADMK recruited more than 10 lakh members from the first two months of creation. The first victory of the AIADMK was in the Dindigul parliamentary by-election in 1973. It also won the Coimbatore assembly by-election a year later.
The DMK-led government was dismissed by a Central promulgation of corruption charges in 1976. The party came to power in 1977 after trouncing DMK in the assembly elections. MGR was sworn in as the 7th Chief Minister of the state on 30 June, 1977. MGR remained in power for ten years till his death in December 1987 winning three consecutive assembly elections held in 1977, 1980 and 1984.
In 1979, AIADMK became the first Dravidian and regional party to be part of the Union Cabinet, when two AIADMK MP’s, Satyavani Muthu and Aravinda Bala Pajanor, joined the Charan Singh Ministry which followed the Morarji Desai-led Janata Party government of 1977-79.
In a massive reverse of fortunes for the DMK – Congress alliance, the AIADMK won a comfortable majority in the state assembly by winning 129 seats out of 234. Dr. MGR was sworn in as chief minister for the second time on 09.06.1980.
In 1984, even with MGR’s failing health and subsequent hospitalization abroad, the party managed to win the assembly elections.
Many political historians considered MGR’s persona and charisma at that point of time as “infallible”, and a logical continuation of his on-screen “good lad” image, strengthened by his “mythical status” in the minds of the masses.
MGR continued to enjoy popular support in his third tenure, which ended with his demise on 24.12.1987.
Two factions of the AIADMK were formed – one under Janaki Ramachandran, wife of MGR and the other under Ms. Jayalalithaa.
The DMK government was dismissed in 1990 by the Central Government led by Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar, an ally of the AIADMK at that time, as the constitutional machinery in the state had completely broken down.
The AIADMK swept to power in the assembly elections of 1991 under the leadership of Ms. Jayalalithaa, who became the 2nd woman Chief Minister and the 10th Chief Minister of the state.
Despite false accusations of corruption, Ms. Jayalalithaa completed her full term of five years as Chief Minister.
In the 2001 Assembly Election, the AIADMK-led alliance, consisting of the Congress, the Tamil Maanila Congress , the Left Front and the Pattali Makkal Katchi, regained power, winning 197 seats, with AIADMK winning 132 of them.
Due to the proceedings in a disproportionate assets case which occurred in her previous tenure, Ms. Jayalalithaa was prevented from holding office. The AIADMK’s treasurer and current Finance Minister O. Panneerselvam was appointed as the Chief Minister on 21.09.2001.