The world's largest mosque is located on the banks of the Guadalquivir River in the position of about 130km northeast southwestern Spain , Seville (Sevilla), Cordoba city of Andalusia and (Cordoba) ( Muslim chapel ) . " Mezquita " is a word which means " mosque " in Spanish . Cordoba was conquered by the Muslims for 711 years , was the capital of the land in the morning after the Umayyad Islamic dynasty was established in 756 years . 784 years , and started construction of a giant mosque , King Abd Arrafuman of the same dynasty lasted up to 10 century and its expansion . The Reconquista , Catholics and recapture the Cordoba mosque became a Catholic church in the reign of King of Spain Carlos . Has become (Catedral de Santa María de Cordoba, known as Cordoba Cathedral ) and St. Mary's Cathedral of the Cathedral of the Catholic Church now . Cathedral remains today , is famous especially "Forest of cylinder " of the chapel you are strongly left vestiges of the mosque of bygone days , cylinder of 846 lines is supporting a horseshoe-shaped arch which is a combination of red brick and marble . basilica , is a World Heritage Site together with a tower of Calahorra and Alcazar of the old town .