Thirukkural or Tirukkural (Tamil Name: திருக்குறள்), or shortly the Kural, is a classic Tamil sangam literature consisting of 1330 couplets or kurals, dealing with the everyday virtues of an individual. Considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality, it is known for its universality and non-denominational nature. It was authored by Thiruvalluvar.
Considered as chef d'oeuvre of both Indian and world literature. Thirukkuṛaḷ is one of the most important works in the Tamil language. This is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is given by such as Tamiḻ Maṟai (Tamil concept); Poyyamozhi (words that never fail); and Daiva nool (divine text). The work is dated to sometime between the third and first centuries BCE and is considered to precede Manimekalai and Silappatikaram, since they both acknowledge the Kural text.
Tirukkural was originally known as 'Muppaal', meaning three-sectioned book, since it contained three sections 'Aram', 'Porul' and 'Inbam'. Thiru is a term denoting divine respect, literally meaning holy or sacred. Kural is a very short Tamil poetic form consisting of two lines, the first line consisting of four words (known as cirs) and the second line consisting of three. It should also conform to the grammar of Venpa. It is one of the most important forms of classical Tamil language poetry. Since the work was written in this poetic form, it came to be known as 'Thirukkural', meaning 'sacred couplets'.